Which conditions INCREASE risk for prerenal acute kidney injury during the perioperative period? (Select 2.)
Prerenal azotemia is caused by renal hypoperfusion or ischemia that has not yet caused injury to the kidneys. When debris from necrosis is released into the tubules, causing obstruction, which increases tubular back pressure and leak of tubular fluid, acute kidney injury begins. In patients with already existing renal vasocontriction (eg, hypovolemia, heart failure, nephrotoxin exposure, or sepsis) prerenal acute kidney injury is more likely. Calculi are a cause of post-renal acute kidney injury.